Ramadan: a guide for the perplexed
I'm fasting for Ramadan. It might be a good time to lay to rest some common myths about the whole business
I crawled out of bed this morning at 2.45am, exhausted and bleary-eyed. I wolfed down two eggs, two slices of toast, a croissant, half a banana and several glasses of water. Then I went back to bed.
I performed a similar routine at a similar time yesterday, and the day before that, too. Awoke, ate and slept again. Have I gone mad, I hear you ask? Why do I seem to be having pregnancy-style, middle-of-the-night cravings for fried breakfasts and lots of liquid?
I don't. There's a more prosaic explanation: it is Ramadan and I'm now on to my third day of fasting. Luckily for me, and for the 1.6 billion other Muslims across the world, there are just 27 more days to go. (Is that my stomach I hear groaning?)
Fasting, or "sawm", in Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam – the others being the "shahadah" (declaration of faith), "salat" (the five daily prayers), "zakat" (almsgiving) and the "hajj" (pilgrimage). The fast is considered to be a "wajib" or obligatory act (though there are exemptions that I'll come to in a moment).
Muslims fast for 30 days in Ramadan. Just to be clear: we fast from sunrise (hence the 2.45am wakeup) to sunset (around 9pm at the moment) each day. We don't fast for 30 days as a whole. That, of course, would be impossible. Not to mention suicidal.
Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, is regarded by Muslims as one of the most holy months: we believe that it was during Ramadan that the Qur'an was first revealed to prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel.
The Islamic calendar has been lunar since its inception in AD622, with each month beginning with the sighting of a new moon. As the lunar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, the start date for Ramadan moves back through the western calendar each year. A few years ago, Ramadan coincided with our winter, when the days were shorter and cooler; this year, too much moaning and griping from British Muslims (yes, me included), it's fallen in the summer, with much longer and hotter days. That means the fasting isn't easy. Imagine, for instance, going on the underground in the sweltering August heat without being able to take a bottle of water with you.
In fact, you're not allowed any liquids: no water, no juice, no milk . . . The list of "banned" items and activities in Ramadan is extensive: no cigarettes, drugs, sex, bad language or bad behaviour, from sunrise to sunset. That, dear readers, is the challenge. (In case you're wondering, chewing gum isn't allowed either.)
"Has it begun?" my colleagues asked me earlier this week, their eyes expressing a mixture of sympathy, pity and – just perhaps – awe. Most (well-meaning) non-Muslims view Ramadan as deeply oppressive. Isn't it dangerous, I'm often asked? Doesn't it damage your health? Weaken you?
The short answer is No. Millions (billions?) of Muslims have been fasting for centuries, without suffering any Ramadan-specific illnesses or diseases. Vulnerable groups – the sick, the elderly, children, pregnant women, travellers – are exempt. And, in recent years, a number of academic studies have demonstrated the health benefits of fasting. According to a paper published in April by the Intermountain Medical Centre Heart Institute in Utah, it can lower the risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes, and keep blood cholesterol levels in check. The researchers found fasting could also reduce other cardiac risk factors such as excess weight, blood sugar levels and triglycerides.
Some of the world's leading athletes and sports stars have managed to fast while performing at the highest levels. Next year, Ramadan starts in July, and will cover the whole period of the Olympics. East London will be home to Muslim athletes from across the world, fasting, competing and – I guarantee you – winning medals.
It's nothing new. In the 90s, Hakeem Olajuwon, a devout Muslim considered to be one of the greatest basketball players of his generation, would often play in the NBA for the Houston Rockets while fasting. "It made me stronger and my statistics went up," he later remarked. "I was better during Ramadan, more focused." In February 1995, Olajuwon averaged an impressive 29 points per game and was named NBA Player of the Month, despite the entire month coinciding with Ramadan.
More recently, Manchester City's Kolo Touré, also a practising Muslim, has had no qualms about fasting and playing top-flight football. "It doesn't affect me physically," Touré argued during last year's Ramadan, which happened to correspond with the first month of the Premier League. "It makes me stronger. You can do it when you believe so strongly in something."
Ramadan becomes an unparalleled, month-long opportunity for personal and spiritual growth – and the fast is a deeply private act of worship. "Of the five pillars of Islam, the fast of Ramadan is perhaps the most personal expression of self-surrender to God," the American writer and convert to Islam, Jeffrey Lang, argues in his book, Even Angels Ask. "We can observe a Muslim performing the other four pillars, but, in addition to himself, only God knows if he is staying with the fast."
So far, I've managed three. Now, what time is it? Noon. Hmm. Just eight hours and 55 minutes to go.
Mehdi Hasan is the senior editor (politics) at the New Statesman and author of The Debt Delusion (Random House).
Top 5 tips for travel during Ramadan
Lonely Planet, 1 August 2011
Ramadan Mubarak! With the Muslim holy month of Ramadan about to start, now's a good time to learn to say ‘Happy Ramadan!' – especially if you're considering travel around August and September to countries with majority Muslim populations, like Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey and Morocco. With a few pointers, you can join a happy Ramadan already in progress.
1. Know the basics
Ramadan is a lunar month dedicated to sawm, or fasting, one of the five pillars of Islam. From sunup to sundown, the faithful abstain from food, drink, tobacco and sex to concentrate on spiritual renewal. After sunset, there's a euphoric iftar, or meal, to break the fast, followed by a late-night feast and sahur, a meal before the sun comes up and fasting begins again. Yet Ramadan isn't all daytime discipline and nightly parties: it's a time of generosity and zakat, or charity, another of the five pillars of Islam. Fasting isn't easy, so everyone slows down during the day – but you'll also notice people going out of their way to extend small kindnesses.
2. Plan ahead
Like any holiday, Ramadan affects business as usual. Many venues operate with limited hours and staff, so try to book accommodation, transport and tours via internet or phone before you arrive. Even if offices have posted hours, call ahead to ensure someone's available to meet your needs. Most restaurants close by day, so pack lunches or reserve ahead at restaurants that open for lunch in tourist areas.
3. Shift your schedule
Nightly festivities trump early bedtimes during Ramadan. Sunset streets come alive with light displays, music and offers of sweets at every intersection. After an iftar of dates, soup or savoury snacks, people of all ages binge on sweets until the late-night feast – followed by more visits and sweets, until wired kids finally wear themselves out. There's no rush to get up the next day, unless shopping is on the agenda. Stores often close in the afternoon, and bargaining is more pleasant before midday heat kicks in and lack of water is felt. As sundown approaches, the mood turns upbeat, with Ramadan finery on display and tantalising aromas filling the streets.
4. Get into the Ramadan spirit
Don't worry: you won't be expected to fast during Ramadan. According to tradition, even Muslim travellers are exempt from fasting – it's hard to do at home under controlled conditions, let alone in unfamiliar places. To show your support, avoid eating or drinking on the street in front of people who are probably fasting, and grant people privacy at prayer times.
5. Accept hospitality
When a new friend offers you special Ramadan sweets or invites you to a family feast, polite refusal would be crushing. You're not obliged to return the favour or eat the sweets: you honour givers just by accepting their generosity in the spirit of Ramadan. Kindness can be repaid by practising zakat, and giving to a local charity.